Course Outline

Sampling for Defensible Environmental Decisions

Major Sampling Errors

  • Definition of sampling errors
  • Causes of sampling errors
  • Calculation of sampling errors
  • Mitigation of sampling errors

Sampling Tools

  • Selection of proper sampling tools
  • Proper use of sampling tools
  • How certain sampling tools cause bias

Basic Statistics for Sampling Activities

  • The importance of statistics in sampling
  • Random sample selection and its importance
  • Confidence intervals and confidence levels
  • Calculations for average and proportion of material above limit

Field Quality Control

  • Interpreting field quality control
  • The correct way to take splits and replicates
  • Outliers and resampling
  • Recognizing sampling problems in data

Data Quality Objectives

  • Overview of EPA DQO process
  • Why data quality objectives are the most important part of sampling
  • The three most important questions when designing sampling plans

Sampling Plan Design

  • Probabilistic vs. non-probabilistic samples
  • Simple random, stratified, or systematic
  • Critical elements of a sampling plan design
  • Sampling for average property
  • Sampling for hot spots
  • Sampling for cleanup levels
  • Cost effective sampling plans
  • Grabs and composites
  • MULTI INCREMENT sampling technique

Sampling Various Media

  • Wastes
  • Containerized solids and liquids
  • Soil
  • Surface water